부사 Adverb

The function of adverbs is to modify verbs and adjectives of the sentence. An adverb usually comes before a declinable word(용언), a verb, an adjective or an adverb. Adding an adverb in a sentence makes the meaning clearer.

Korean has various types of adverbs - sentential adverbs(문장 부사), transformational adverbs(진성 부사), compositional adverbs(복합 부사 / 합성부사) and componential adverbs(성분 부사).

Sentential adverb

A sentential adverb modifies a whole sentence. It consists of manner adverbs(양태 부사/양상 부사) and conjunctional adverbs(접속 부사/접속사).

A manner adverb is often the first word of a sentence. It reflects a speaker's attitude or an opinion.

어쨌든; 하여튼 anyway 과연 indeed; as expected
아마 perhaps 실로 truly
꼭; 반드시 certainly 물론 of course
설령 even if 정말 really
가령 if; suppose 단연코 firmly
만약; 만일 if 마치 as if; like
설마 surely (not) 하물며 much more; much less
제발 please 글쎄 well
아무쪼록 as much as one can 아무리 no matter how
why 어찌 how
결코 never 딴은 indeed; though
부디 by all means 비록 though
Examples

하여튼 그녀는 오지 않았어요.
Anyway, she didn't come.

만일 버스가 안 온다면, 집에 걸어서 갈 거예요.
If the bus doesn't come, I'll walk home.

정말 할 수 있겠습니까?
Can you really do that?

A conjunctional adverb connects a first sentence to its next sentence while modifying it. It sometimes connects words.

그렇지만 but; however 따라서 therefore; accordingly
그러나 but; however; though also
그래서 so 또는∗ or
그러니까 so; for that reason 또한 moreover
그런데 but; by the way 및∗ and; also; as well as
그리고∗ and; and then 뿐만 아니라 besides
그러므로 so; therefore 왜냐하면 because
더구나 besides 하지만 but; however; still
더욱이 moreover 혹은∗ or

'∗' can be used for connecting two words

Examples

바나나를 먹었어요. 그래서 배가 불러요.
(I) ate a banana. So (I'm) full.

겨울이 되었다. 그러나 날씨는 따뜻했다.
The winter came. But the weather was warm.

성별 및 연령
gender and age

Transformational Adverb

It indicates an adverb that was not an adverb but transformed into an adverb. For instance, there is a noun 'nature(자연)'. However it was also transformed into 'naturally(자연히)'.

자연 (nature) 자연히 (naturally) 가만있다 (still) 가만히 (still)
급하다(urgent) 급히(in a hurry) 대단하다 (great) 대단히 (very)
많다 (many) 많이 (many) 굉장하다 (excellent) 굉장히 (extremely)
조용하다(quiet) 조용히 (quietly) 다행 (fortune) 다행히 (fortunately)
빠르다 (quick; fast) 빨리 (quickly; fast)


Examples

나는 숙제를 빨리 끝냈다.
I finished homework fast.

조심하세요. 접시가 굉장히 뜨겁습니다.
Be careful. The plate is extremely hot.

Compositional Adverb

It is the combination of two or more words that creates a new word. As an example, 밤낮 means night and day, which is the combination of 밤(night) and 낮(day).

눈물 (tears) 눈 (eyes) + 물 (water)
떡국 (rice cake soup) 떡 (rice cake) + 국 (soup)
오르내리다 (go up and down) 오르다 (go up) + 내리다 (go down)
몇몇 (some) 몇 (some) + 몇 (some)
오가다 (come and go) 오다 (to come) + 가다 (to go)
손발 (hands and feet) 손 (hands) + 발 (feet)
에게도 (as well; even to) 에게 (to) + 도 (and)
더더욱 (even more) 더 (more) + 더욱 (more)
국그릇 (soup bowl) 국 (soup) + 그릇 (bowl)
곧잘 (fairly well; easily) 곧 (soon) + 잘 (well)
봄여름 (spring and summer) 봄 (spring) + 여름 (summer)
Examples

그녀의 손발이 찹니다. / Her hands and feet are cold.

몇몇 사람들이 축구를 하고 있다. / Some people are playing soccer.

그는 그녀에게도 말했다. / He told her too.

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