부사 Adverb

This page is all about a componential adverb(성분 부사). It includes an attributive adverb(성상 부사), a demonstrative adverb(지시 부사), and a negation adverb(부정 부사). Its role is to modify a certain verb, adjective, or adverb of a sentence.



Attributive Adverb

It modifies a word related to a shape, state, degree or nature of a thing or person. And sometimes it is used to modify a noun.

너무 (too), 일찍 (soon), 매우 (very), 온통 (entirely), 빨리 (fast), 갑자기 (suddenly), 잘 (well), 많이 (many; much), 가장 (most), 깊이 (deeply), 겨우 (only), 거의 (almost), 무척 (very)

Examples

날씨가 매우 덥다. / The weather is very hot.
'매우' is used as a degree of '덥다(hot)'.

겨우 한 시간이 남았습니다. / Only an hour left.
'겨우' modifies a noun '한 시간' (an hour).



Imitative adverbs (의성 부사/Onomatopoeia) and mimetic adverbs (의태 부사) are also known as an attributive adverb.

Iimitative adverbs are an imitation of a natural sound of a thing or made by an animal or a person such as 야옹(Meow), 꿀꿀(Oink Oink), 뚜벅뚜벅 (tip tap tip tap)

Mimetic adverbs mimic gestures of a person, an animal or a thing. For instance, 깡충깡충 is used when a person or an animal with short legs is jumping high. It is often used for a rabbit - "토끼가 깡충깡충 뛰다."(The rabbit is jumping).

Demonstrative Adverb

It is used when refering to a specific subject. It is divided into '처소 부사'(locative adverb) and '시간 부사' (time adverb).

A locative adverb is a type of adverb that refers to a location, direction, or distant.

저기 over there, 이리 this way, 거기 there, 멀리 far, 그리 that way, 이쪽 this side, 가까이 near, 저리that way, 저쪽 that side, 어디 where, 여기 here, 그쪽 thither, 이곳 here

Examples

여기 와 / Come here
The speaker is referring to a location '여기'.

저리 가 / Go that way
The speaker is referring to a location '저기'.

'이리', '저리', '그리' are also used when refering to one's behavior.

A time adverb is pointing a state or an action of time.

오늘(today), 내일(tomorrow), 모레(the day after tomorrow), 어제(yesterday), 그저께(the day before yesterday), 금방(soon), 먼저(first), 일찍(early), 아까(a while ago)

Examples

내일 만나자. / Let's meet tommow.
The speaker is refering to time "내일(tomorrow)".

제가 여기 먼저 왔어요. / I came here first.
The speaker is pointing time 'first'.

Negation Adverb

It denies the meaning of a word. To use it appropriately, it must be placed at the beginning of a verb or an adjective you want to deny.

안(않) is a short form of 아니 and 아니에요 which is 'not' and 'do not' in English. It refers to one's unwillingness.

Verb or Adjective Short Form Negation English
가다. (to go) 안 가요. (I) do not go.
먹다. (to eat) 안 먹어요. (I) do not eat.
자다. (to sleep) 안 자요. (I) do not sleep.
사다. (to buy) 안 사요. (I) do not buy.
예쁘다. (pretty) 안 예뻐요. (It) is not pretty.
길다. (long) 안 길어요. (It) is not long.
크다. (big) 안 커요. (It) is not big.
넓다. (broad) 안 넓어요. (It) is not broad.
졸리다. (sleepy) 안 졸려요. (I) am not sleepy.
기쁘다. (be happy) 안 기뻐요. (I) am not happy.
춥다. (cold) 안 추워요. (I) am not cold.


Examples

저는 혼자 안 먹어요. / I do not eat alone.
The person is not willing to eat alone.

꽃이 안 예뻐요. / The flower is not pretty.

못 is used to express one's inability. 못 cannot be used with the adjective. 

Verb Short Form Negation English
뛰다. (to run) 못 뛰어요. (I) cannot run.
놀다. (to play) 못 놀아요. (I) cannot play.
가다. (to go) 못 가요. (I) cannot go.
주다. (to give) 못 줘요. (I) cannot give.
말하다. (to speak) 못 말해요. (I) cannot speak.
재미있다 (be) funny 안 재미있다 (O) 못 재미있다 (X)
크다 (be) tall 안 크다 (O) 못 크다 (X)
아름답다 (be) beautiful 안 아름답다 (O) 못 아름답다 (X)

For instance, you want to say "I cannot go to school." First, you know you need 못 가요(cannot go). But you need to explain "where" you cannot go. You cannot go to school so add '학교에'(to school), then the sentence is completed. "학교에 못 가요."(I cannot go to school).

Let's compare '안'(do not) and '못'(cannot) with a verb 사다(to buy).

가: 디자인이 이상해서 안 사요. / (I) do not buy because the design is weird.
나: 사이즈가 없어서 못 사요. / (I) cannot buy because there is no size.

가 person does not buy one because he doesn't like its design. He can buy it but is unwilling to do.
나 person cannot buy it because there is no size available for him. He wants to but he can't.

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