Particles 불변화사


It indicates a possessor and relationship between two nouns in the sentence. The particle -의 is '...'s', and 'of' in English such as Andy's (앤디의), and the professor's (교수님의).

For the personal pronouns, 나/저 becomes 나의/저의, 너 becomes 너의, and 우리/저희 becomes 우리의/저희의, etc.

If you want to say one's thing, you must put -것(거), meaning 'thing' after -의.


그는 나의 (내) 친구예요. He is my friend.

이것은 저의 (제) 컵이에요. This is my cup.

그 시디는 나오미 거예요. The CD is Naomi's thing

그 신발은 니키의 것이에요. The shoes is Nicky's thing.

However -의 is not necessary for colloquial settings.


이 가방은 누구의 것이에요? Whose bag is this? (formal)
이 가방은 누구 것이야? Whose bag is this? (informal)

그 지갑은 베니의 것이에요. That wallet is Benny's thing. (formal)
그 지갑은 베니 것이야. That wallet is Benny's thing. (informal)

-만 only; just

It usually means only and just, but also can be used for other intentions. It is also used to ask a speaker's favor.


5만 원만 빌려주실래요? Could you lend me just 50,000 won?

포도주 한 잔만 마실게요. (I) will just have a glass of wine.

너는 만화책만 읽어? Do you only read mangas?

아만다는 채소만 먹는다. Amanda only eats vegetables.

-만 also indicates 'at an interval of (time)'


오랜만입니다. Long time no see.

-만 can replace 'but'


직원들을 모았습니다만, 하실 말씀이 있습니까?

(I) gathered all employees, but do you have anything to say?

-만 follows after the nouns. It appears in place of -이/가 or -을/를.


랜스가 공부해요. Lance studies.
랜스만 공부해요. Only Lance studies.

랜스는 공부를 해요. Lance studies.
랜스는 공부만 해요. Lance only studies.

페리가 감자를 먹어요. Perry eats potatoes.
페리만 감자를 먹어요. Only Perry eats potatoes.

페리는 감자를 먹어요. Perry eats potatoes.
페리는 감자만 먹어요. Perry only eats potatoes.

However -이/가 or -을/를 can be also added after -만 in some cases.


나만(이) 답을 알고 있어. Only I know the answer.

너만(을) 좋아해. (I) only like you.

우리만(이) 지구를 지킬 수 있어. Only we can protect the earth.

-만 can be added after -에 and -에서 (에만/에서만).


안나는 화요일에만 일해요. Anna works only on Tuesdays.

나탈리는 집에서만 공부해요. Natalie studies only at home.

-만 can be also added after an adverb


빨리 가주세요. Please go fast.
빨리만 가주세요. Please just go fast.

맛있게 만들어 주세요. Please cook (it) deliciously.
맛있게만 만들어 주세요. Please just cook (it) deliciously.

예쁘게 잘라주세요. Please cut (it) pretty.
예쁘게만 잘라주세요. Please just cut (it) pretty.

-뿐 nothing but; only; just


추운 건 너뿐(만)이 아니야. You are not the only one cold.

손으로 만진 것뿐이야. (I) just touched with (my) hands.

가진 게 그것뿐이에요? Is that all you have?

그녀는 너뿐이다. She has no one but you.

니콜은 영어를 할 뿐 아니라 한국어도 한다. Nicole speaks Korean as well as English.

농담한 것뿐이에요. I was just joking.

-밖에 only; nothing but; no more than

It is used when a quantity is smaller compare to another, or a quantity is less than one's expectations, or when you have no other choice.


윌리엄은 차밖에 신경 안 쓴다. William cares nothing but (his) car.

진실을 말할 수밖에 없었다. (I) had no choice but to tell the truth.

아직 저녁 여섯 시밖에 안 됐어. It's only 6 p.m..

만원밖에 없어. (I) have only 10,000 won with me.

기회는 한 번밖에 없어. (I) have only one opportunity.

* -만 expresses one's willing to do for something, while -밖에 is the choice that has made unwillingly.


Add -으로 after the noun that ends in a consonant (e.g. 주먹으로(by fist). Add -로 after the noun that ends in a vowel or the consonant ㄹ (e.g. 기차로(by train), 비행기로(by plane)).

1) by, with


열차로 요세미티에 갔어요. (I) went to Yosemite by train.

답은 연필로 쓰세요. Please write answers with a pencil.

학교에 버스로 가요. (I) go to school by bus.

2) direction


집으로 갈 거야 아니면 서점으로 갈 거야? Are you going home or to a bookstore?

오른쪽으로 가 왼쪽으로 가? Are you going to right (or) left?

앞으로 오세요. Please come to the front.

3) selection


음료는 뭐로 하시겠어요? What would you like to drink?

아이스 티로 주세요. Iced tea please.

4) the change of state


모자가 가방으로 변했다. A hat turned into a bag.

얼음이 플라스틱으로 변했다. Ice changed into plastic.

5) reasons


파리는 에펠 탑으로 유명해요. Paris is well known for Eiffel Tower.

지진으로 건물들이 무너졌어요. The buildings fell down due to an earthquake.

부주의로 사고를 당했어요. (I) had an accident due to (my) carelessness.

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