Particles 불변화사

-부터 since; from(time); beginning with; starting from

It expresses a beginning point.


수업은 세 시부터 시작합니다. The class starts from three o'clock.

열다섯 살부터 (키가) 안 자랐다. (I) haven't grown since 15 years old.

내일부터 너랑 말 안 할 거야. (I) won't speak with you, starting from tomorrow.

-에(서) or -(으)로 + 부터 indicates starting point.


집에서부터 학교까지 걸어왔어요. (I) walked from home to school.

막스로부터 온 편지 A letter from Max.

-까지 until; to

1) an ending point or an ending location.


오후 5시까지 공원에서 기다릴게요. (I) will wait in the park until 5 p.m..

어제부터 지금까지 아무것도 안 먹었어요. (I) didn't eat anything from tomorrow till now.

화요일에서 목요일까지 공휴일이에요. From Tuesday through Thursday is a holiday.

벤은 매일 밤늦게까지 공부한다. Ben studies till night every day.

2) even


그는 그녀에게 화까지 냈다. He even showed his anger to her.

가족에 친구들까지 떠났다. My family and even my friends left.

어제 지갑까지 샀어요. (I) even bought a wallet yesterday.

그녀는 피아노, 기타, 그리고 바이올린까지 켠다. She plays a piano, a guitar, and even a violin.

3) as far as


부산까지 가십니까? Do you go as far as Busan?

샌프란시스코에서 로스엔젤로스 까지는 한 시간 반이 걸립니다. It takes an hour and a half from San Francisco to Los Angeles.

-부터 -까지 usually indicates 'from (time) to (time)' / (time)부터 (time)까지


오전 9시부터 저녁 6시까지. From 9 a.m. till 6 p.m..

아침부터 저녁까지. From morning to till night.

오늘부터 내일까지. From today to tomorrow.

-에서 -까지 often express 'from (location) to (location)' / (location)에서 (location)까지


학교에서 집까지. From home to school.

시카고에서 마이애미까지. From Chicago to Miami.

무릎에서 발목까지. From knee to ankle.


-(이)나 is used with a noun that ends in a vowel (e.g. 과자나), while 이나 is used with the noun that ends in a consonant (e.g. 잠이나).

1) to decide something or when there is no more choice than one.


(우리) 햄버거나 먹자.
Let's eat hamburger. (there's nothing we can eat except hamburger)

(우리) 하키나 하자.
Let's play hockey. (there's nothing we can play except hockey)

잠이나 잘래요.
(I) will just sleep. (there's nothing I can do except sleeping)

집에서 컴퓨터 게임이나 할래요.
(I) will play computer games or something. (there's nothing I can do except playing computer games)

도서관에서 공부나 할래요.
(I) will study or something at the library. (there's nothing I can do except studying)

가게가 다 닫았으니까 집에나 가자.
The stores are all closed, (let's) go home. (there's nothing we can do since all stores are closed)

쇠고기밖에 안 남았어요. Only beef has left.
그럼 쇠고기나 먹을래요. Then I'll just eat beef. (I have no choice except beef)

2) or


축구나 야구 할래? Do you want to play soccer or baseball?

감자튀김이나 샐러드 주세요. Give (me) french fries or salad.

맥주나 포도주 주세요. Give me beer or wine.

스몰이나 미디움으로 주세요. Give me small size or medium size.

3) as many(much) as


비디오 게임을 7시간이나 해요. (I) play video games as many as seven hours.

어제 14시간이나 잤어. (I) slept as many as fourteen hours yesterday.

전기료를 340불이나 냈어요. (I) paid as much as $340 for electronic fee.

이 재켓이 230불이나 해요. The jacket costs as much as $230.

4) about; how many; how much


서울에서 뉴욕까지 몇 시간이나 걸려요? About how many hours does (it) take from Seoul to New York?

티셔츠 몇 장이나 살꺼에요? About how many T-shirt will (you) buy?

청소기를 얼마나 주고 샀어요? About how much did you pay for the vacuum cleaner?


-조차 is used to indicate even the most basic.


너무 피곤해서 전화받기조차 싫다. I'm so tired that I don't even want to answer the phone.

샤워조차 하기 싫다. I don't even want to take a shower.


-마저 means without leaving any.


마저 얘기해. Say the last of it.

친한 친구마저 그를 무시했다. Even his closest friend ignored him.

그는 직업마저 잃었다. He even lost a job.

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