Particles 불변화사


It is used more in colloquial communication. -랑 is used with the noun that ends in a vowel, and 이랑 is used with the noun that ends in a consonant.


바나나랑 시리얼 먹을래?

Do you (want to) eat a banana and cereal?

어제 시내에서 사만다랑 데니를 봤어.

I saw Samantha and Denny yesterday in downtown.

스미스랑 제니스는 내일 미국으로 돌아가.

Smith and Janice are going back to the States tomorrow.


The function of -와/과 is to link nouns together. -와 is used with a noun that ends in a vowel, while -과 is used with a noun that ends in a consonant. -와/과 usually used in written or formal language.


톰과 나는 파리에 있어. Tom and I are in Paris.

아이스크림과 레모네이드를 팝니다. (We) sell ice cream and lemonade.

축구와 농구 중에 뭐가 좋아요? What do you like between soccer and basketball?

물과 오렌지 주스 중에 뭐를 마시겠습니까? Water and orange juice, which one would you like?

불고기와 김치는 한국 음식이에요. Bulgogi and kimchi are Korean food.


-하고 has a meaning of 'to be with'. It is used in colloquial communication.


나하고 같이 놀자. Let's play with me

연필하고 지우개 좀 빌려줘. Borrow me a pencil and an eraser.

나하고 같이 미술관에 가자. Go to the museum with me.

헬렌하고 같이 조깅을 해요. (I) jog with Helen.

또 once more; again


너 또 자? Are you sleeping again?

그는 그녀를 또 울렸다. He made her cry again.

또한 also; likewise


나 또한 네게 흥미가 없어. I'm too not interested in you.

너 또한 내가 보고 싶었어? Did you also miss me?

-에 at; in; on

-에 is used to mark the static location. It indicates the location where the person or the thing exists.


레니가 차고에 있어요. Lenny is in a garage.

답은 194쪽에 있어요. The answer is on page 194.

사진이 책상에 있어요. The picture is on the desk.

왼쪽 팔에 벌레가 있어요. There is a bug on your left arm.

It also indicates destination.


그녀는 도서관에 갔다. She went to a library.

그는 애틀란타에 갔다. He went to Atlanta.

더글러스는 칵테일파티에 갔다. Douglas went to a cocktail party.

친구들을 결혼식에 불렀다. (I) invited friends to my wedding.

Or inanimate objects (-에게/한테 for animate objects)


도서관에 책을 반납했어요. I returned books to a library.

학교에 학비를 냈어요. I paid tuition fees to the school.

회사에 연락을 했어요. I called to an office.

미술관에 천 불을 기부했어요. I contributed $1,000 to an art gallery.


-에서 marks a starting location and the location of an activity.


버스에서 내렸어. I got off a bus.

이탈리아에서 편지가 왔어. I got a letter from Italy.

백화점에서 제이크를 봤어. I saw Jake in a department store.

샌디는 카페에서 커피를 마신다. Sandy is drinking a cup of coffee at a cafe.

공원에서 (같이) 야구시합을 하자. Let's play baseball in the park.

아직도 집에서 자고 있어? Are you still sleeping at home?

레이철은 미국에서 공부한다. Rachael is studying in the States.

-에게, -께 and -한테

They mean 'to' in English, which are used to mark the animate objects. -에게 is used in formal/written language, -께 is used to indicate an esteemed person or someone higher position. -한테 is used in colloquial language.


제이콥에게 Dear Jacob (letter)

에게 안부 전해주세요. Please give my regards to Pat.

학생들에게 설문조사를 했다. (I) surveyed students.

선생님 꾸중을 들었어요. (I) was scolded by a teacher.

사장님 연락했어요. (I) made a phone call to the president.

학부모님 Dear parents of the students (letter)

한테 묻지 마. Don’t ask me.

강아지한테 먹이 줬어? Did you feed the puppy?

그 종이 캐시한테 있어. Cathy has the paper.

By adding -서 to -에게, or 한테, the meaning changes to "from (someone)"


샘한테(서) 선물을 받았어. (I) received a gift from Sam.

팀한테서 답장을 기다려요. (I) wait for a reply from Tim.

빅터에게서 전화를 기다립니다. (I) wait for a phone call from Victor.

교수님에게(서) 추천서를 받았습니다. (I) received a letter of recommendation from a professor.

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