Syllable-Final Consonants - 받침

Korean has twenty-seven syllable-final consonants which contains every consonant except ㄸ, ㅉ, and ㄸ. However, only 7 sounds(ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, and ㅇ) are pronounced for 27 final consonants. The syllable-final consonants sound changes according to the last syllable of the final consonant.

쌍(겹)받침 Double Final Consonants

A final consonant with two consonants such as 'ㄵ' and 'ㄳ' etc, are called double final consonants. '겹받침' is a final consonant with two different consonants such as ㄼ, ㄳ, ㄶ, ㄻ, and '쌍받침' is with the two same consonants like ㅆ, ㄲ and ㅃ.
For a double final consonant, the last(second) part of the double final consonant, except 'ㅎ', replaces a zero initial’s 'ㅇ' when the following syllable is a zero initial.

밝아요발가
갔어요가써
짧아요짤바
닦아요다까
잤어요자써
없어요업서
삶아요살마
싫어요 → 실허요 (X) 시러요(O)

An exception is that 'ㄼ' sounds either 'ㄹ' or 'ㅂ'.

밟다 to step on 넓다 be wide
밟다 → 밥따
밟자 → 밥짜
밟고 → 밥꼬
밟는 → 밥는
밟아 → 발바
넓다 → 널따
넓고 → 널꼬
넓은 → 널븐

Nasal Sound

The final consonant changes, except 'ㅇ', when a non-nasal final consonant (only the consonants showed below) is before a nasal initial 'ㄴ' or 'ㅁ'.

Changes to Example
ㄱ to ㅇ 악마 → 앙마
속내 → 송내
막내 → 망내
ㅋ to ㅇ 녘 나라 → 동녕 나
ㄷ to ㄴ 닫나요 → 단나
맏며느리 → 만며느리
ㅅ to ㄴ 훗날 → 훈날
잣나무 → 잔나
ㅈ to ㄴ 낮말 → 난말
잊나요. → 인나요.
ㅊ to ㄴ 빛나다. → 빈나다.
ㅌ to ㄴ 겉모습 → 건모
ㅎ to ㄴ 놓나요. → 논나요.
ㅂ to ㅁ 합니다. → 함니다.
십 만원 → 심 만
ㅍ to ㅁ 짚 모자→ 밀짐 모

ㅎ Final Consonant Irregularity

Those letters below are aspirated when ㅎ is before or after them.

Changes to Example
ㄱ changes to ㅋ 국화 → 구콰
박하 → 바카
ㄷ changes to ㅌ 좋다 → 조타
얗다 → 하야타
ㅂ changes to ㅍ 입후보 → 이푸
집합 → 지팝
ㅈ changes to ㅊ 잦히다 → 자치
맞히다 → 마치


Sometimes the syllable-final consonants that is pronounced as 'ㄷ' such as ㅅ (시옫), ㅊ (치옫) are pronounced as 'ㅌ' when 'ㅎ' is located before or after the consonant. e.g.) 옷 한 벌 → 오 탄 벌 , 꽃 한 송이 → 꼬 탄 송이


구개음화 Palatalization

When ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by 이 [i], 'ㄷ' replaces 'ㅇ' with 'ㅈ' and 'ㅌ' with 'ㅊ'

Examples

받이: '이' is followed after 받(ㄷ) so it's read as '바지'.

같이: '이' is after 'ㅌ', so 'ㅇ' is replaced with 'ㅊ', and 'ㅌ' is dropped. It's pronounced as '가치'.

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